A DNA strand is a fascinating molecule for the study of genetics. The double helix structure consists of a chain of nucleotides, and they are joined together by hydrogen bonds. Of late, immigration dna testing is done to validate the biological relationship between the child and an alleged parent. If you look up www.washingtonpost.com, you will read that there have been new stringent laws related to immigration which makes DNA testing mandatory.
All About DNA Testing
There are certified DNA testing labs that will perform this test for immigrants. The DNA testing process is done with the buccal swabs, and they are just as accurate as using blood as a sample. The process involves two stages. In the first stage, a swab of saliva is obtained from both the parties and analyzed in the lab. In the next step, statistical analysis is carried out to determine the probability of the relation between the two parties.
In the laboratory, this double helix structure is studied, and certain segments or points are identified. Their location is called loci or a locus (for plural). Note that at any given locus, you can observe two copies of DNA which are referred to as an allele. This could correspond to the gene that is responsible for the color of the eye or hair texture.
Why are there two copies?
One allele is inherited from the mother, and its twin is obtained from the father. In parental testing, the length of the allele at a particular position in the child’s DNA is compared to the length of the similar allele that belongs to the parents.
Labs make use of Paternity Index (PI) values for each set of an allele, and the length is calculated based on traits like the ethnic background and so on. All the combined values of PI give rise to the Combined Paternity Index. For instance, a CPI value of 100 is equal to a probability of 99.00 percent paternity and a CPI value of 10000 signifies probability of 99.99 percent and so on.
Stringent Measures In Immigration DNA Testing
DNA tests require three or more alleles to be different between the alleged parent and the child. Environmental factors such as UV radiation and lifestyle habits can lead to mutation in the alleles. While performing an immigration test, stringent measures are prescribed by AABB. The testing laboratory must have evidence like photographs taken while the sample was collected, fingerprints and necessary documents.
Once the buccal samples are collected, they have to be immediately sent to the testing lab without any delay. Final reports must bear the seal and authorized signature of the concerned medical officer in charge.
Decoding The Results
When you receive the DNA test reports, do not get intimidated by all the codes and numbers used. You will come across sections like:
Demographic details- This includes general details like the name of the child or parent, date of birth and ethnic background.
Genetic details- This lists loci points with their alphanumeric names. For any given allele, the Paternity Index (PI) denotes its uniqueness among the ethnic group of the tested individual. A high PI value denotes that the given allele is rare in occurrence, and they are responsible for the high values in the final calculation.
The report contains genetic information about the mother, father and the tested child.
While the process and interpretation of DNA testing look like a page from a science story, these tests are prone to human errors. Mislabeled samples and improper handling of data can lead to erroneous results. If the testing includes close blood relatives, it is difficult to identify the biological father as there are common alleles in them.
Despite all oddities and imperfections, DNA testing for immigration remains a preferred choice for determining the authenticity of a relation.